The Unilever Series: Sunflower Seeds by Ai Weiwei

Sunflower Seeds, by the renowned Chinese artist Ai Weiwei is a sculptural installation that appears at first to be a vast, flat landscape of sunflower seed husks. Visitors are invited to walk across the surface of the work and discover that each seed is in fact a unique porcelain replica, one of over 100 million individual handmade objects which have been specially produced for the commission.

Art Exhibition previously on at Tate Modern in United Kingdom.
From Tuesday 12 October 2010 to Monday 02 May 2011

The Unilever Series:  Sunflower Seeds by Ai Weiwei image Sunflower Seeds  2010 image

Published by anonymous on Wednesday 20 April 2011.
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This is the largest work Ai has made using porcelain, one of China’s most prized exports, with which he has previously created imitation fruit, clothes and vases. Although they look identical from a distance, every seed is different, and far from being industrially produced, ‘readymade’ or found objects, they have each been intricately handcrafted by skilled artisans. All of them have been produced in the city of Jingdezhen, which is famed for its production of Imperial porcelain. Each ceramic seed was moulded, fired at 1300°C, hand-painted and then fired again at 800°C. Over the course of two years, over 100 million of these were made, forming a mass of objects that weighs over 150 metric tonnes, covering 1000 square metres of the Turbine Hall. The casual act of walking across their surface contrasts powerfully with the precious nature of the material and the effort of its production.

For Ai, sunflower seeds – a common Chinese street snack shared by friends – carry personal associations from the Cultural Revolution (1966-76). While individuals were stripped of personal freedom, propaganda images depicted Chairman Mao as the sun and the mass of people as sunflowers turning towards him. Yet Ai remembers the sharing of sunflower seeds as a gesture of human compassion, providing a space for pleasure, friendship and kindness during a time of extreme poverty, repression and uncertainty. There are also contemporary resonances in the work, with its combination of mass production and traditional craftsmanship inviting us to look more closely at the ‘Made in China’ phenomenon and the geopolitics of cultural and economic exchange.

Sunflower Seeds is a sensory and immersive installation, which visitors can touch, walk on and listen to as the seeds shift beneath their feet. However, the tactile, engaging nature of this work also encourages us to consider highly pertinent questions about ourselves and our world. What does it mean to be an individual in today’s society? Are we insignificant or powerless unless we act together? What do our increasing desires, materialism and number mean for the future? Ai Weiwei has said “From a very young age I started to sense that an individual has to set an example in society. Your own acts and behaviour tell the world who you are and at the same time what kind of society you think it should be.”

Sheena Wagstaff, Chief Curator, Tate Modern said:

“Ai Weiwei has created a truly unique experience for visitors to this year’s Unilever Series. The sense of scale and quality of craftsmanship achieved in each small perfectly formed sunflower seed is astonishing. In trying to comprehend their sheer quantity, Ai provokes a multitude of ideas, from the way we perceive number and value, to the way we engage with society at large.”

Paul Polman, Chief Executive Officer, Unilever said:

“We are proud of our long relationship with Tate Modern. It is a partnership that has produced some spectacular commissions in the Turbine Hall over the last ten years. Ai Weiwei’s imaginative and thoughtful approach to the eleventh commission is very much in this tradition. We hope that his work will bring pleasure to all who see it.”

Ai Weiwei was born in 1957 in Beijing, China, where he lives and works. He has exhibited internationally, including recent solo shows at Mori Art Museum, Tokyo and Haus der Kunst, Munich, and has contributed to many group exhibitions around the world, including at the São Paulo Biennial; Documenta 12, Kassel, Germany and Tate Liverpool, UK. Ai also founded the design company Fake Design and co-founded the China Art Archives and Warehouse in Beijing. His work is held in many major collections, including Tate Collection (Table and Pillar 2002).

The Unilever Series: Ai Weiwei is curated by Juliet Bingham, Curator, Tate Modern, supported by Kasia Redzisz, Assistant Curator, Tate Modern.

A fully illustrated catalogue will be published by Tate Publishing in November featuring an interview with the artist by curator Juliet Bingham, and further contributions by Carol Yinghua Lu, an art critic, curator and contributing editor to Frieze magazine; Brendan McGetrick, writer, editor and designer; and Marko Daniel, Curator of Public Programmes at Tate Modern.

A film about Ai Weiwei, produced by Tate Media, is being continuously screened in a seated area located under the bridge. It is also available to view online at